The improved mechanical properties of iron and steel as well as the general accessibility of the iron ore and its cheapness ensured iron’s triumph over bronze and stone; the latter had remained an important material for the manufacture of tools during the Bronze Age. In Europe only in the second half of the first millennium B. did iron and steel begin to play a significant role as a material for the manufacture of tools and weapons. Only with the discovery in the ninth-seventh century B. of a method of preparing steel from iron and of its thermal processing did the new material achieve widespread use. Pure copper and bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, were used indiscriminately at first; this early period is sometimes called the Copper Age...... It did not begin in the Americas until the coming of the Europeans. C., but these were of meteoric iron, evidently shaped by the rubbing process used in shaping implements of stone. The possibility of enrichment through exploitation gave rise to wars for plunder and slaves.
In Europe knowledge of iron smelting was acquired in Greece and the Balkans, and somewhat later in N Italy (see Etruscan civilization Etruscan civilization,highest civilization in Italy before the rise of Rome. Among many tribal societies the structures of this transitional period acquired the political form of the military democracy. On the territory of the modern USSR iron metallurgy first appeared at the end of the second millennium B. in Transcaucasia (Samtavro burial ground) and in the south of the European part of the USSR.
The core of the territory of the Etruscans, known as Etruria to the Latins, was northwest of the Tiber River, now in modern Tuscany and part of Umbria...... In Racha (western Georgia) the use of iron dates from remote antiquity.
As a result of the increased productivity of labor, surplus products increased, which served as an economic precondition for the emergence of the exploitation of man by man and the decline of the tribal primitive communal system.
The development of production forces, which was linked to the spread of iron, gradually led to the transformation of all social life.
Ox-drawn plows and wheeled vehicles acquired a new importance and changed the agricultural patterns. Iron tools aided the extensive development of all handicraft production and the spread of plow farming among the local tribes in the Scythian period. C.) the Sarmatians inhabited the region between the Don River and the Urals.
For the first time humans were able to exploit efficiently the temperate forests. The period occurring after the Scythian in the steppes of Prichernomor’e is represented by the Sarmatian culture, which prevailed from the second century B. In the first centuries of the Common Era one of the Sarmatian tribes, the Alani, began to play an important historical role, and gradually the name Sarmatian was replaced by the name Alani. belonging to the ancient eastern Baltic tribes, which were later absorbed by the Slavs. It was packed and we had to park in the overflow, but it was a fantastic day." May 2015 "A pleasant and interesting tour round the museum. Bronze Age,period in the development of technology when metals were first used regularly in the manufacture of tools and weapons. One of the sources of the accumulation of wealth and the growth of property inequality was the expansion of commodity exchange. Set across a stunning and fully interactive five acre site, the centre protects and preserves the unique history and heritage of the beautiful Forest of Dean.With a wide range of things to do and see, including five onsite galleries exploring the history of the Forest from the Ice Age to the present day; a reconstructed Victorian cottage; a charcoal burner's camp; a woodland playground; chainsaw carving demonstrations; a variety of animals, an onsite gift shop and cafe there's always something new and exciting to interest, inspire and surprise you.Villanovan culture,the culture of a people of N Italy in the early Iron Age (c.1100–700 B. The term is derived from the town of Villanova, near Bologna, where the first excavations of a Villanovan cemetery were conducted (1853–55)...... The Mossinoi and Khalibs (Khaldians), the neighbors of the Colchians, were reputed to be excellent metallurgists.